a faith in total opposition to both the traditional Catholic as well as Protestant churches. The result was a rational synthesis of Gods unity and attributes, omnipotence and justice, omnipotence and human free will, reason and revelation. Medieval Universities: In addition to demonstrating the historical fact that the medieval scholasticism and humanism had its origins in the Classical Islam, Makdisi also showed that a major part of the Western intellectual culture owed its origins to Arabo-Islamic contributions including the medieval universities and. The assimilation and expansion process left its indelible imprint upon the ultimate outcome. Man should be allowed to think for himself and adopt a discourse which satisfies his rational instincts and natural inclinations. The pre-modern reformers of 16th and 17th century looked for a rational faith which can prove its reasonableness without resorting to illogical and unintelligible argots of the priests and their fanatic supporters.
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There was not much of a gap between the classical sciences including the Arabic language and contemporary Islamic discourse. Even then he helped in publishing Theodore Biblianders (1509-1564) translation of the Quran in 1543 and wrote its preface with the intention of thwarting Islamic intellectual invasion before the Turkish military invasion. In its purest sense it is nothing but a reflection of their philosophical ideals and a manifestation of their lost legacy. This theory of mind is often cited as the origin of modern conceptions of self, consciousness and identity. Many Lutherans, Calvinists and Unitarians from Transylvania, Holland and England particularly the Hungarian Protestants under the leadership of Imre Tokoly were part of the Ottoman invasion of Vienna.